Q.1. What is Management?
is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning,
organizing, directing, staffing and controlling in order to attain stated
objectives effectively and efficiently. Effectively
means doing the right task, completing activities and achieving goals and
efficiently means to attain objectives with least amount of resources at a
to Harold Koontz, "Management is an art of getting things done through others
and with formally organised groups."
Q.2. Mention two features of Management.
Ans: Features of
a. Management is a distinct
activity, which consists of communicating, organizing, motivating, planning,
leading, staffing, controlling, decision making, etc.
It can be studied,
experimented and practiced.
c. Management is intangible i.e. it cannot be seen but it can be felt
through the performance of the workers. Mismanagement if any is quickly noticed
and is a sign of poor management.
Q.3. What are the objectives
effective management must achieve the following general objectives:
output with minimum input - A
successful management must achieve the objectives of the business by making
optimum utilization of resources with minimum efforts attaining maximum results
with minimum resources and least wastage.
employer’s and employees’ prosperity -
Every management should make sincere efforts to earn maximum profit for the
enterprise. It is equally important that the management should pay fair,
reasonable and competitive remuneration to employees. Prosperity for both the
employer and employees is the primary objective of the management.
efficiency – The
management should not only make the best possible utilization of available
factors of production but it should try to develop and improve the efficiency
of the factors of production. Increased productivity of the resources will
result in excellent performance.
and human betterment - An
effective management brings prosperity for employers and employees. Excellent
remuneration improves the standard of living of workers. The growth of business
generates employment opportunities. Equal pay for equal work without any
discrimination brings social justice.
Q.4. "Is Management an Art?”
practical application of knowledge is an art. Characteristics of an art are:
Personal skill or
application is personalized
Management as an art fulfills the following
knowledge –A manager
has to plan, organize, guide, coordinate and control the activities of his
subordinates, therefore practical knowledge of these functions is very
essential for him.
Personal skill or
application is personalized-
Management is a personal and individual skill. The psychology of individual
differences applies in the case of management also. Every manger has his own
original distinct way of doing his own work. Management may be justified as an
art because it is creative.
Concrete result- Managerial activities aim at achieving a
definite goal. The objective may be reaching production or sales target in the
most effective and economical manner.
objectives – The management
as an art creates such congenial atmosphere, wherein the motivated employee
offers his best services to the enterprises.
through practice –Like any
other art managerial efficiency is developed through practice.
Conclusion: - Management can safely be regarded as
an art because application of management principles is personalized in the
sense that every manager has his own approach to the management problems
further, management involves practice and creativity, which makes it an art.
Q.5. "Is management becoming a profession”? Discuss in
light of emerging trend.
Ans: - Yes, management is by and large becoming a profession. This can
be seen by referring to the following emerging trends in business:
a. All big companies appoint
professional managers at all levels.
b. Many Indian companies take initiative
to replace family members by professional mangers.
c. Proprietary managers are becoming
more interested in acquiring latest knowledge and technique of management. They
are sending their relatives abroad to do managerial course.
In conclusion, it may be said that managers at the top level do not
satisfy all the requirements of profession but management is becoming a
Q.6. Briefly explain "MANAGEMENT AS A
Ans: - Management is
regarded as a process because it consists of -
Setting up objectives for an enterprise; and
Taking a series of steps such as planning,
coordinating, directing, organizing and staffing to ensure that these
objectives are achieved. This process starts at the top and continues in more
or less degree at every level of the organization.
Q.7. "MANAGEMENT AS A GROUP has the responsibility of an enterprise”.
Ans: - Management as a GROUP refers to the Board of Directors or
Executive Directors who are responsible for effectively managing the affairs of
the business by guiding and controlling the work of other managers such as production,
sales, finance, personnel, quality control managers, etc. This approach focuses
on a team rather than individuals. This is because it is believed that
management as a team can contribute more effectively and efficiently than an
Q. 8. "Management is a learned DISCIPLINE”. Comment
Ans: - Discipline is a subject that can be studied, organized
and taught. It should meet the basic requirements such as:
It should be acceptable
It should be capable of discovering knowledge, which
can be verified, passed on to others and can be successfully applied.
A large number of
schools, colleges & universities have introduced management courses. It has
got experts, thinkers and philosophers of the subject. These experts are
devoted to impart their skill of the subject to learners of the discipline.
They follow a code of conduct prescribed for them. As such we can conclude that
management is a discipline.
Q.9. Explain in brief
"MANAGEMENT AS AN ACTIVITY”
Ans: - Management is a human activity that plans, controls,
directs and organizes the efforts of all employees in the best interest of the
organization and society. For this the human and physical resources should be
integrated in such a way that there is minimum waste of material, time and
energy. It takes decisions on the
The goals of the
The activities to achieve
the goals of the organization.
The people who will perform
those activities of the organization.
The allocation of resources
for the various activities of the organization.
It leads by doing oneself
what it wants others to do; and
It directs the
subordinates by showing & encouraging them to do things the right way.