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Nature of ManagementUnit-IIUnit-IIIUnit-IVUnit-VUnit-VIUnit-VIIUnit-VIII

 Q.1.  What is Management?

Ans: Management is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning, organizing, directing, staffing and controlling in order to attain stated objectives effectively and efficiently. Effectively means doing the right task, completing activities and achieving goals and efficiently means to attain objectives with least amount of resources at a minimum cost.

According to Harold Koontz, "Management is an art of getting things done through others and with formally organised groups."

 Q.2.  Mention two features of Management.

Ans: Features of Management:

a.    Management is a distinct activity, which consists of communicating, organizing, motivating, planning, leading, staffing, controlling, decision making, etc.

b.   It can be studied, experimented and practiced.

c.     Management is intangible i.e. it cannot be seen but it can be felt through the performance of the workers. Mismanagement if any is quickly noticed and is a sign of poor management.


Q.3.  What are the objectives of management?

Ans:  An effective management must achieve the following general objectives:

a.    Obtaining maximum output with minimum input - A successful management must achieve the objectives of the business by making optimum utilization of resources with minimum efforts attaining maximum results with minimum resources and least wastage.

b.   Maximum employer’s and employees’ prosperity - Every management should make sincere efforts to earn maximum profit for the enterprise. It is equally important that the management should pay fair, reasonable and competitive remuneration to employees. Prosperity for both the employer and employees is the primary objective of the management.

c.    Improving efficiency – The management should not only make the best possible utilization of available factors of production but it should try to develop and improve the efficiency of the factors of production. Increased productivity of the resources will result in excellent performance.

d.   Social justice and human betterment - An effective management brings prosperity for employers and employees. Excellent remuneration improves the standard of living of workers. The growth of business generates employment opportunities. Equal pay for equal work without any discrimination brings social justice.


Q.4.  "Is Management an Art?” Comment.

Ans:  The practical application of knowledge is an art. Characteristics of an art are:

a.    Practical Knowledge

b.   Personal skill or application is personalized

c.    Concrete results

d.   Constructive objective

e.   Perfection through practice

Management as an art fulfills the following characteristics: -

a.    Practical knowledge –A manager has to plan, organize, guide, coordinate and control the activities of his subordinates, therefore practical knowledge of these functions is very essential for him.

b.   Personal skill or application is personalized- Management is a personal and individual skill. The psychology of individual differences applies in the case of management also. Every manger has his own original distinct way of doing his own work. Management may be justified as an art because it is creative.

c.    Concrete result- Managerial activities aim at achieving a definite goal. The objective may be reaching production or sales target in the most effective and economical manner.

d.   Constructive objectives – The management as an art creates such congenial atmosphere, wherein the motivated employee offers his best services to the enterprises.

e.   Perfection through practice –Like any other art managerial efficiency is developed through practice.

 Conclusion: - Management can safely be regarded as an art because application of management principles is personalized in the sense that every manager has his own approach to the management problems further, management involves practice and creativity, which makes it an art.


Q.5.  "Is management becoming a profession”? Discuss in light of emerging trend.

Ans: - Yes, management is by and large becoming a profession. This can be seen by referring to the following emerging trends in business:

a.    All big companies appoint professional managers at all levels.

b.   Many Indian companies take initiative to replace family members by professional mangers.

c.    Proprietary managers are becoming more interested in acquiring latest knowledge and technique of management. They are sending their relatives abroad to do managerial course. 

In conclusion, it may be said that managers at the top level do not satisfy all the requirements of profession but management is becoming a profession.


Q.6.  Briefly explain "MANAGEMENT AS A PROCESS.                                  

Ans: - Management is regarded as a process because it consists of -

a.    Setting up objectives for an enterprise; and

b.   Taking a series of steps such as planning, coordinating, directing, organizing and staffing to ensure that these objectives are achieved. This process starts at the top and continues in more or less degree at every level of the organization.

 Q.7.  "MANAGEMENT AS A GROUP has the responsibility of an enterprise”. Explain.

Ans: - Management as a GROUP refers to the Board of Directors or Executive Directors who are responsible for effectively managing the affairs of the business by guiding and controlling the work of other managers such as production, sales, finance, personnel, quality control managers, etc. This approach focuses on a team rather than individuals. This is because it is believed that management as a team can contribute more effectively and efficiently than an individual.

 Q. 8. "Management is a learned DISCIPLINE”. Comment                                                                                                              

Ans: - Discipline is a subject that can be studied, organized and taught. It should meet the basic requirements such as:

a.    It should be acceptable

b.   It should be capable of discovering knowledge, which can be verified, passed on to others and can be successfully applied.

A large number of schools, colleges & universities have introduced management courses. It has got experts, thinkers and philosophers of the subject. These experts are devoted to impart their skill of the subject to learners of the discipline. They follow a code of conduct prescribed for them. As such we can conclude that management is a discipline.

 Q.9.  Explain in brief "MANAGEMENT AS AN ACTIVITY”                                                                                                               

Ans: - Management is a human activity that plans, controls, directs and organizes the efforts of all employees in the best interest of the organization and society. For this the human and physical resources should be integrated in such a way that there is minimum waste of material, time and energy.  It takes decisions on the following activities:

a.    The goals of the organization

b.   The activities to achieve the goals of the organization.

c.    The people who will perform those activities of the organization.

d.   The allocation of resources for the various activities of the organization.

e.   It leads by doing oneself what it wants others to do; and

f.     It directs the subordinates by showing & encouraging them to do things the right way.


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